Related resources for levels of participation
This page lists more resources related to different levels of participation.
This publication discusses some important issues to consider when planning and implementing the community consultation process. Action Research Resources, Australia, 2000.
The ability of a community to cope with an emergency is based to a large extent on the measures it takes before the emergency occurs. Getting communities to participate in actions that enhance preparedness and create resilience to disasters has proven to be a significant challenge to the civil defence emergency management sector. This Best Practice Guideline assists with this process and is aimed at local authorities, regional Civil Defence Emergency Management Groups (CDEM) and support services around the country. It is intended to be a practical, hands-on reference, drawing together best practice from New Zealand experience and overseas. New Zealand, 2010.
The State Services Commission (SSC) presents the Factors for Successful Coordination Framework, to help agencies plan coordinated activity. The framework groups nine success factors according to the three dimensions of mandate, systems and behaviours. Ensuring these factors are in place will help agencies coordinate more effectively and achieve success together.
Information from the Ministry for Culture and Heritage about how the ministry can work with local authorities to promote cultural well-being. Includes information about funds and schemes the ministry administers.
Copyright Ministry of Health
Local authorities frequently both undertake activities influencing public health and wellbeing and facilitate or support similar activities done by others. This document highlights good practice that is occurring in the sector. By encouraging more effective working relationships between health and local government agencies, it should develop more efficient action at a local and regional level to support people adopting healthier lifestyles.
This paper from the Community Economic Development Action Research Project covers processes for engaging with communities, key challenges in building a meaningful relationship with communities/community groups and emergent principles of engagement that can be considered in future work.
This research project looks at how local councils have developed approaches to encourage engagement of local people in the shaping of public policies and services. Ipsos Mori Social Research Institute, United Kingdom, 2006.
The National Coalition for Dialogue & Deliberation (NCDD) is an active network and community of practice centred around conflict resolution and public engagement practices. The NCDD compiled this guide as a companion to a 2010 series of events designed to connect practitioners, public managers and community leaders to build local capacity in quality public engagement. Showcasing NCDD's best work (like the Core Principles for Public Engagement and the Engagement Streams Framework), the guide also recognises a lot of the great work done by others in this field. The guide shares stories and resources with the dialogue and deliberation community, public managers, and anyone else with an interest in public engagement. USA, 2010.
Many New Zealand organisations are in regular contact with different parts of the community and voluntary sector and the government agencies that work alongside them. This contact can be through regular e-mails, electronic newsletters, printed publications or web alerts. When your agency needs to reach a wider community audience, you could distribute your messages, or seek feedback on an issue, via others' communications. Factors like timing, relevance, deadlines and editorial policies will impact on what is actually included, but the publications listed below have indicated a willingness to consider content that others submit. It is up to you to make the approach.
CommunityNet is a good place to publish announcements for the community and voluntary sector.
The International Association for Public Participation (IAP2) has developed a toolbox designed to help agencies share information. It identifies the pros and cons of various methods and offers quick tips to get things right.
This organisation represents the national interests of councils of New Zealand. They champion best practice in the local government sector, and provide policy, advice and training to councils. The website can help connect you with local councils who you may wish to consult or work with.
Government agencies can publish media releases on the New Zealand government website to reach community and voluntary groups.
The Office for the Community and Voluntary Sector sends out a regular e-newsletter. You can use this to ensure your message reaches a wide audience within the sector.
The Office for the Community and Voluntary Sector has good networks and communication links with the sector. You can work with them to send your announcements to their networks.
Plain English is routinely used in new and revised New Zealand laws, thanks to determined efforts by the Parliamentary Counsel Office and the Law Commission. That's an extraordinary achievement, because the law is obviously a complex and challenging type of communication. If it's possible for statutes to be written clearly, there's no excuse for other confusing messages from Government.
These writing tips from Civil Defence will help to ensure your message is clear and understood.
Government agencies can promote news or events on the Public Sector Intranet if they think other government agencies may have effective networks with community groups or be interested in the issue.
Stakeholder analysis is the identification of a project’s key stakeholders, an assessment of their interests, and the ways in which those interests affect project riskiness and viability. It contributes to project design by identifying the goals and roles of different groups, and by helping to formulate appropriate forms of engagement with these groups. This Landcare Research link provides an introduction to this topic. New Zealand, 2010.
Formal consultation - NZ resources
Those drafting papers for Cabinet and Cabinet committees need to decide early in the process which other departments or agencies need to be consulted. The purpose of that consultation is to ensure that Ministers have all the relevant information in front of them as they take decisions. Departments initiating drafts are responsible for ensuring that appropriate consultation is undertaken, that others are given reasonable time to comment on the draft paper and that their views are accurately reflected in the paper. The Cabinet Office may reject papers where it appears the necessary consultation has not taken place.
This case study illustrates how Housing New Zealand used participatory appraisal to develop its community renewal programme for state housing.
These guidelines from the Department of Internal Affairs are available in the Policy Development Toolkit on the Public Sector Intranet. The Policy Development Toolkit also includes consultation guidelines from the Ministries of Health, Pacific Island Affairs, Women’s Affairs and the Office of Ethnic Affairs. New Zealand, 2005.
This document is intended as a guide to the requirements for consultation as legislated for under the New Zealand Public Health and Disability Act 2000. Ministry of Health, Wellington, New Zealand, 2002.
This 2005 guidance on how to conduct consultations is available on the Public Sector Intranet.
This brochure from the Ministry of Consumer Affairs gives advice on consultation and ensuring consumer representation.
This Ministry of Consumer Affairs booklet is designed to help government agencies set up effective consultation with consumers through consumer representatives. It talks about when to consult, how to consult, the costs of consultation, and, most particularly, how to locate consumer representatives who can give the quality of advice needed.
Politicians and public officials frequently emphasise the need for consultation as an essential element of the deliberative processes underpinning the development of policy or the implementation of programmes and services. This paper maps out the principal approaches used by governments to consult with and engage affected communities of interest. Stewart critically assesses the available literature to identify the ‘good, bad, and the ugly’ of engagement, and provides selected case studies. By Prof Jenny Stewart for ANZSOG.
The Department of Conservation's consultation guidelines explain the consultation process and provide guidance to help assess appropriate consultation methods for different issues and levels of complexity.
The Department of Conservation's consultation policy states that the department is committed to consulting with tangata whenua, associates, and the community, and managing effective and efficient consultation processes, in the interest of getting the best information to make decisions, which are good for both conservation and the people of New Zealand.
Land Information New Zealand (LINZ) is a government department with the purpose of maintaining and building confidence in property rights in land and geographic information, and encouraging land information markets to develop and mature. It has consulted on a range of activities, including the significant work to digitise land information and establish Landonline.
Government agencies can list their current consultations here on the New Zealand government website.
This site provides a simple and effective facility for government agencies to improve the reliability and circulation of news items and public notices. It allows the agency to notify web-based news portals and syndicated news sites of their news items.
Way2Go came about through public consultations during the development of the Nelson Tasman Physical Activity Plan, and as a result of SPARC’s Obstacles to Action report. New Zealand.
Formal consultation – International resources
This 2nd edition of the code (produced in Jan 2004) was designed to improve the way the British Government consults with stakeholders. It strengthened the commitment to providing respondents with feedback and to following better regulation best practice in developing policy options. Six key consultation criteria are identified. 1. Consult widely throughout the process, allowing a minimum of 12 weeks for written consultation at least once during the development of the policy. 2. Be clear about what your proposals are, who may be affected, what questions are being asked and the timescale for responses. 3. Ensure that your consultation is clear, concise and widely accessible. 4. Give feedback regarding the responses received and how the consultation process influenced the policy. 5. Monitor your department’s effectiveness at consultation, including through the use of a designated consultation co-ordinator. 6. Ensure your consultation follows better regulation best practice, including carrying out a Regulatory Impact Assessment if appropriate.
The British Government has had a Code of Practice on Consultation since 2000. It sets out how consultation exercises are best run and what people can expect from the Government when it has decided to run a formal consultation exercise. This third version of the Code (produced in July 2008), is itself the result of listening to those who regularly respond to Government consultations. This Code aims to help improve the transparency, responsiveness and accessibility of consultations, and help in reducing the burden of engaging in Government policy development. It features 7 consultation criteria: When to consult - Formal consultation should take place at a stage when there is scope to influence the policy outcome. Duration - Consultations should normally last for at least 12 weeks with consideration given to longer timescales where feasible and sensible. Clarity of scope and impact - Consultation documents should be clear about the consultation process, what is being proposed, the scope to influence and the expected costs and benefits of the proposals. Accessibility - Consultation exercises should be designed to be accessible to, and clearly targeted at, those people the exercise is intended to reach. Burden - Keeping the burden of consultation to a minimum is essential if consultations are to be effective and if consultees’ buy-in to the process is to be obtained. Responsiveness - Consultation responses should be analysed carefully and clear feedback shouldbe provided to participants following the consultation. Capacity to consult - Officials running consultations should seek guidance in how to run an effective consultation exercise and share what they have learned from the experience.
The Government of Canada is committed to finding new and innovative ways to consult with, and engage Canadians. Consulting With Canadians provides single- window access to a list of consultations from selected government departments and agencies. Canada. 2011.
The Council of Australian Governments (COAG) has published a very comprehensive set of resources designed to ensure best practice consultation is undertaken when policy is being developed. These are based on seven straightforward principles;
- Continuity — Consultation should be a continuous process that starts early in the policy development process.
- Targeting — Consultation should be widely based to ensure it captures the diversity of stakeholders affected by the proposed changes.
- Appropriate timeliness — Consultation should start when policy objectives and options are being identified. Throughout the consultation process stakeholders should be given sufficient time to provide considered responses.
- Accessibility — Stakeholder groups should be informed of proposed consultation, and be provided with information about proposals, via a range of means appropriate to those groups.
- Transparency — Ministerial Councils need to explain clearly the objectives of the consultation process, the regulation policy framework within which consultations will take place and provide feedback on how they have taken consultation responses into consideration.
- Consistency and flexibility — Consistent consultation procedures can make it easier for stakeholders to participate. However, this must be balanced with the need for consultation arrangements to be designed to suit the circumstances of the particular proposal under consideration.
- Evaluation and review — Policy agencies should evaluate consultation processes and continue to examine ways of making them more effective.
This kit contains information about consultation principles, techniques, case studies, and evaluation tips. It includes guidelines for working with Aboriginal people and people with disabilities. Australia.
The report discusses various models of community consultation and documents why there is currently such enthusiasm for community consultation at the local and state level in Victoria. The report also includes new research about practical approaches in Victoria to reaching people who may be disengaged, disinterested or facing barriers to public participation. Australia.
This Australian site includes useful community development resources.
This first edition of the Consultation Code was published in May 2000 to promote effective discussion, and encourage the government and the voluntary and community sector to communicate and work together more effectively. United Kingdom, 2000.
A very comprehensive document for consultation with the community and voluntary sector within the context of the UK Compact. It contains guidelines on developing a framework for consultation and policy appraisal, ways to consult and how to decide who to consult.
The Council of Australian Governments (COAG) has published a comprehensive set of resources designed to ensure best practice consultation is undertaken when policy is being developed. These are based on seven principles that do not require a post-graduate qualification to understand: Continuity — Consultation should be a continuous process that starts early in the policy development process. Targeting — Consultation should be widely based to ensure it captures the diversity of stakeholders affected by the proposed changes. This includes Commonwealth, State, Territory and local governments, as appropriate. Appropriate timeliness — Consultation should start when policy objectives and options are being identified. Throughout the consultation process stakeholders should be given sufficient time to provide considered responses. Accessibility — Stakeholder groups should be informed of proposed consultation, and be provided with information about proposals, via a range of means appropriate to those groups. Transparency — Ministerial Councils need to explain clearly the objectives of the consultation process, the regulation policy framework within which consultations will take place and provide feedback on how they have taken consultation responses into consideration. Consistency and flexibility — Consistent consultation procedures can make it easier for stakeholders to participate. However, this must be balanced with the need for consultation arrangements to be designed to suit the circumstances of the particular proposal under consideration. Evaluation and review — Policy agencies should evaluate consultation processes and continue to examine ways of making them more effective. The consultation guidelines are in line with their principles for good regulatory process. Australia, 2009.
This is a useful resource on using community consultation in making policy and improving services. It includes sections on planning consultation, overcoming barriers to effective consultation, the principles of good practice and evaluating effectiveness.
Collaborative processes and partnerships - NZ resources
Partnering in its various forms is gaining in popularity in other countries as a means of building new infrastructure and delivering public services. There are also signs of increasing interest in this approach in New Zealand, particularly in local government. The experience of other countries suggests there is a need for clear government policy and direction if partnering is to be used to any great extent. This report aims to inform leaders and decision-makers about the partnering issues they need to consider.
The Better Connected Services for Kiwis project looks at how and why interagency work actually happens on the ground. The aim of the project is to accelerate shared learning about collaborative working. The research highlights the way ordinary kiwis in the public sector work collaboratively to achieve some extraordinary results in seemingly commonsense, everyday ways.
This presentation by Trish Hall of Thought Partners explores what makes for effective partnerships. It was part of the series of Good Engagement seminars run by the Office for the Comunity and Voluntary Sector. New Zealand, 2009.
This Good Engagement seminar presented by Trish Nickel identifies that a decisive factor in the success of partnering is the skill of partnership brokers or practitioners (who can be internal or external to the partner organisations). The role of this partnership broker is frequently overlooked and seldom developed. New Zealand, 2009.
In Waitakere City, collaborative activity in social sectors is based on a tradition of community activism, interagency collaboration and city council facilitation. Through these processes, a number of lessons have been learned, and a language and new processes of collaboration have been developed. This article outlines the lessons learned.
A paper from The Department of Internal Affairs. This paper addresses how community outcomes processes can promote effective central government engagement with local government. The paper also describes how central government agencies could use information from community outcomes processes, and the outcomes themselves, to improve policy development, programmes and the delivery of services to achieve mutually desired outcomes.
This case study illustrates how a community group contributed fresh ideas and alternative solutions to help protect Wellington against the risk of bank-edge erosion. As a result, the group built and strengthened its ongoing relationship with the regional authority.
Government agencies may find the Ministry of Health's strategic relationship framework with NGOs useful when developing relationships with community, voluntary and Māori organisations.
This case study describes how NZAID and NGOs worked together to develop a unique policy framework that sets mutual ground rules for collaborative work. NZAID, within the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, is responsible for development co-operation with other countries.
Presented by Guy Salmon, Alastair Bisley, and Glen Lauder, this Good Engagement seminar provided insights on the circumstances and process factors that can enable collaborative governance to deliver worthwhile results. Collaborative governance brings together stakeholders representing different interests and values in deliberative processes to seek a consensus on the way ahead. The seminar included the example of the Land and Water Forum, which comprises a range of primary industry groups, environmental and recreational NGOs, iwi and other organisations with an interest in freshwater and land management. New Zealand, 2011.
This policy outlines how Nelson-Marlborough District Health Board keeps the community informed, promotes interest in its activities and facilitates participation in planning and funding decisions.
This workshop run by Lyn Carson and Anne Pattillo was hosted by the Bioethics Council Secretariat in 2007. A video of Lyn Carson's presentation, Exploring powerful engagement methods: deliberative designs, is available from the website, along with a copy of her PowerPoint slides, a summary of Anne Pattillo's presentation and links to other resources provided in the workshop handbook.
This report identifies the types of partnerships the Department of Conservation has with community groups. This includes the key features of effective partnerships with community groups and the key factors that must be considered when partnerships between the department and community groups are developed. The research is based on seven case studies.
This Guide and Toolkit are designed for people involved in community conservation projects. They provide advice about establishing, maintaining, improving and evaluating community conservation projects. Department of Conservation, 2000.
This paper documents researchers' experiences in engaging with communities as part of the Department of Labour's Community Economic Development Action Research project.
This MBA research project by Mark Bentley of Auckland Communities Foundation concludes that while financial incentives have an important stimulus role, skilful and thoughtful application of non-financial incentives is critical for the long term embedment of effective collaboration.
This 2008 report prepared for Raeburn House explores six different models of shared services in the not-for-profit sector: the umbrella model, the co-location model, the collaboration or partnership model, mixed models based around existing organisations, mixed models focused around new organisations and other initiatives.
This 2008 report prepared for Raeburn House explores six different models of shared services in the not-for-profit sector: the umbrella model, the co-location model, the collaboration or partnership model, mixed models based around existing organisations, mixed models focused around new organisations and other initiatives.
The Ministry for the Environment works in partnership with other agencies to locate, use and share environmental information, for example, regional and territorial councils, Crown Research Institutes and cross-government agencies.
This document covers models of community-government partnership, factors affecting government-community partnerships, and examples (mostly from overseas) of partnerships.
Mosaics is a resource to help improve the delivery of public services to people in New Zealand by offering practical advice on how multiple government and community agencies can better work together. Produced by the Ministry of Social Development in 2003, it is essentially a toolkit for central government, local authorities, businesses and communities on the best ways of working together to achieve common goals. You can request free printed copies of this guide by e-mailing email@example.com.
A 2009 IPANZ Gen-i Public Sector Excellence Award winner, the 'Safer Porirua' project won the category for excellence in working together for better services, as well as the supreme award.
Partnership Matters is an annual journal that examines current thinking and practice in cross-sector partnering. It profiles new thinking and innovative practice from the perspective of those involved at the cutting edge of the partnership paradigm.Partnerships – From Practice to Theory This was a collaboration between the Social and Civic Policy Institute and the Institute of Policy Studies (IPS) at Victoria University of Wellington and was published as an Institute of Policy Studies Policy paper. It includes papers on philosophy of partnership, using partnership as a strategy for a caring society and inherent strengths and weaknesses; with an Irish case study; and a chapter on partnerships between business and the community. It is available from the Institute of Policy Studies, PO Box 600, Wellington. David Robinson (ed.), Social and Civic Policy Institute, Wellington 1999.
This was a collaboration between the Social and Civic Policy Institute and the Institute of Policy Studies (IPS) at Victoria University of Wellington and was published as an Institute of Policy Studies Policy paper. It includes papers on philosophy of partnership, using partnership as a strategy for a caring society and inherent strengths and weaknesses; with an Irish case study; and a chapter on partnerships between business and the community. It is available from the Institute of Policy Studies, PO Box 600, Wellington. David Robinson (ed.), Social and Civic Policy Institute, Wellington, 1999.
This report discusses partnering experiences with the wider social community within Waitakere City. It outlines the concept of partnering with the community, discusses lessons learnt along the way and suggests methods for improving frameworks and capacity building. Local Partnerships and Governance Research Group, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand, 2004.
This report looks at themes, experiences and learning about interagency collaboration, based on the observations of people involved in 'healthy homes' initiatives in New Zealand. Author Megan Courtney is a recognised expert in the field of interagency partnering and has many years of experience actively involved in brokering and sustaining relationships. She has produced this third partnering report that focuses on the partnering experience of multiple agencies working together to achieve healthy homes outcomes across New Zealand. Putting Partnering in Practice provides useful ideas for strengthening partnering practice. 2008.
This document focuses specifically on the development of partnering agreements. Putting time and effort into getting both the agreement process and end product right is worth it. While the focus of this report is on interagency working between central and local government many of the principles will apply more widely. Much of this document is based experiences of interagency working within Waitakere City. It also builds on many of the key learnings from the Strengthening Communities through Local Partnerships. This report is in two parts. The first gives guidance to those entering into new multiparty relationships or about to “put pen to paper”. The second part of the report highlights some current challenges and opportunities related to developing and implementing partnering agreements in New Zealand. Many of the issues raised are not new and will need to be proactively addressed if the expected gains from partnering are to be realised. The first publication in the Putting Pen to Paper series produced by The Department of Internal Affairs, in co-operation with Waitakere City Council, 2006.
The second publication in the Putting Pen to Paper series, Putting Pen to Paper: Profiles is a collection of actual partnering agreements, and an in-depth look at the process of reaching them. The 11 case studies detail: the background and benefits of the partnering agreements how the agreements were developed and what helped or hindered the process what has happened since the agreements were signed advice for others embarking on collaboration. Putting Pen to Paper: Profiles (July 2007) gives examples of partnering agreements from all over New Zealand and from a range of organisations. Key themes are identified, to serve as a reminder of what really matters for partnering agreements to succeed. Printed copies of Putting Pen to Paper: Profiles are available free of charge. Please email firstname.lastname@example.org.
The Office for the Community and Voluntary Sector (OCVS), Philanthropy New Zealand and the Department of Internal Affairs collaboratively organised 12 regional funders forums in 2007. The forums enabled funders to share information and good practice on grantmaking and hear from international experts. OCVS and Philanthropy NZ continue to collaborate on the forums.
Family and Community Services in the Ministry of Social Development compiled this list of resources to provide an introduction to the practice and theory of partnering and collaboration
The Rewa Rewa Agreement is an innovative 21st century solution to complex issues for Maori and local government arising from 19th century decisions. A formal partnership was established between the New Plymouth District Council and the Ngati Tawhirikura A Hapu Trust to manage the ‘Te Rewa Rewa Reserve’. In 2008, the New Plymouth District Council was honored in the IPANZ Gen-I Public Sector Excellence Awards and awarded winner in the category for excellence in Crown-Maori Relationships sponsored by Te Puni Kokiri. This June 2009 presentation was made by Anthony Wilson (General Manager Community Assets at New Plymouth District Council) and Grant Knuckey (Ngati Tawhirikura Trustee). It outlines the process that led to the agreement and the hapu point of view with regard to relationship building, and breaking down the barriers in order to achieve the aims and aspirations of both parties. New Zealand, 2009.
- A quick partnership health check
- In depth partnership assessment
- tools to assess your development and learning needs for improving effective partnerships
- A range of tools for developing leadership, trust, learning and managing performance
The SARA model is a problem-solving tool that can be used to help tackle complex community problems. The model identifies the steps taken to confirm and analyse the problem, make the appropriate response, and assess the response and impact on the problem. The model emphasises identifying partnerships with other community groups. For more information about the S.A.R.A model contact Sergeant Glyn Rowland, of the National Community Policing Group, at email@example.com or phone (04) 474 9499.
This site contains information on the Strengthening Communities through Local Partnerships Project, funded by the Foundation for Research Science and Technology and undertaken by the University of Auckland, Waitakere City Council and Christchurch City Council/Sustainable Cities Trust. The site also contains papers from an April 2002 symposium on partnerships hosted by the University of Auckland.
This paper discusses some of the challenges and constraints experienced when working collaboratively on the development of Te Rito, the New Zealand Family Violence Prevention Strategy. K Maynard and B Wood, Ministry of Social Development, Wellington, New Zealand, 2002.
Collaborating may involve working together, sharing resources, or even merging organisations. This page on the website of the Office for the Community and Voluntary Sector includes a range of ideas and resources to assist organisations in these areas.
A summary of ideas from 12 regional funders forums held in New Zealand in 2007.
This report documents the process and outcomes of nationwide public deliberation. It sets out in detail the process followed in undertaking this deliberation and sets out guidelines for future public deliberation. It discusses the use of both face-to-face deliberation and on-line deliberation. The Bioethics Council, Wellington New Zealand, 2008.
A critique of the Bioethics Council's processes and findings from the Who Gets Born? project. Journal of the New Zealand Medical Association, Vol 122, No 1294, 8 May 2009.
Collaborative processes and partnerships – International resources
Talking the Walk is a toolbook for partnership practitioners from all sectors, to enable them to understand the importance of good communication to their work, and to help them develop techniques to improve their communications - both inside, and beyond, the partnership.
This paper examines the topic of improving social outcomes in New Zealand through collaboration between government and communities where children, young people and families are at risk.
This UK study explores participants' views of the value added by community involvement in governance through Local Strategic Partnerships. The benefits, costs and difficulties identified hold lessons for community engagement in other governance structures, particularly those also including professionals and multi-agency groups.
This partnership assessment tool is valuable in describing the elements of a good partnership. While based on work in the United Kingdom with local government, it will be helpful in building and assessing any cross-sectoral partnership.
Produced by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, this handbook contains examples from a range of countries of good practice, innovative approaches and promising tools for engaging citizens in policy making.
The Community Development Exchanges mission is to be a strong and effective voice for community development. It has a diverse membership including local authorities, policy-makers, academics, non-profit organisations and 'grass roots' workers throughout the UK. It aims to bring about positive changes towards social justice and equality by using and promoting the values and approaches of community development. The website has substantial resources relating to community development as well as case studies.
This website details the partnership venture between the Home Office and the Association of Police Authorities and seeks to gather knowledge around – and support improvements in – the effectiveness of police service engagement, consultation and involvement with the public it serves. The website is intended to act as an information exchange for those involved with the project and others with an interest in community engagement. Association of Police Authorities/The Home Office, United Kingdom.
This article details the implementation of Imagine Chicago, which is a non-profit organization that helps people develop their imagination as city creators. It encourages partnerships between diverse groups and details how it has overcome differences in age, ethnicity, income, and culture while developing and facilitating collaborative intergenerational partnerships. It also includes a Keynote speech to a PLUS (Partners in Long-Term Sustainability) network meeting in Vancouver. B Brown, Imagine Chicago, Chicago, USA, 2006.
This article discusses the need for new approaches in public participation. It reviews public participation generally, and then focuses on the health sector in particular. It finishes with guidelines that can be used in the design and evaluation of public involvement processes in the health sector. J Abelson, P Forest, J Eyles, P Smith, E Martin and F Gauvin, 2003.
This pamphlet was developed by voluntary and community organisations together with public sector bodies in the United Kingdom to strengthen and build upon good practice in local partnerships. It sets-out a checklist for those engaged in partnership working at the local level to consider either in the development or enhancement of local compacts, or in specific partnership arrangements.
This research, conducted by Britain’s Ashridge Business School with The Copenhagen Centre, aims to provide a better understanding of how and why national governments across Europe are seeking to work with business to promote social cohesion and combat social exclusion – in short, to develop new social partnerships.
This anthology brings together some of the leading thinkers in the area of encouraging patient and citizen participation in the NHS. It details activities that have been used in the public, private and voluntary sector to encourage participation. E Anderson, J Tritter and R Wilson (Eds.) Involve and NHS National Centre for Involvement, London, United Kingdom.
This 1998 report by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions presents the results of a research project to analyse in depth one specific approach – the local partnership – its structures, working methods and results.
This publication takes the reader through each stage of the partnership development process and highlights factors that help or hinder successful management practice. Available on interloan from the Department of Internal Affairs Library. A. Wilson and K. Charlton, YPS, York, England, 1997.
This article discusses social collaboration and how to develop social capital within an organization. It includes diagrams for formulating and understanding social connectedness and how to preserve social connectedness when implementing change. It is an excellent resource for understanding the concepts involved in building social capital and social connectedness. D Sandow and A Allen, Society for Organizational Learning, United States of America, 2005.
Members of the OECD Forum for Partnerships and Local Governance have produced this manual on forming and maintaining strong partnerships. The aim of this guide is to serve as a practical manual for both the practitioners and policy makers involved in partnerships. It provides practical advice based on experience, for people involved in creating and maintaining partnerships, rather than theoretical frameworks. One of the examples used is from NZ - the Marlborough Regional Development Trust.
This document reflects a synthesis of ideas from the US Agency for International Development’s New Partnerships Initiative Resource Guide. While focused on international development, it is a toolkit that can be used by anyone interested in developing a cross-sectoral partnership.
An essential guide to cross-sector paternering. Written by Ros Tennyson, Senior Advisor, Partnerships, International Business Leaders Forum.
This handbook from the Canadian Ministry of Public Works and Government Services provides tools and tips on community-based partnerships and how to be effective in them.
The University of Cambridge's annual 'thought leadership' publication on cross-sector partnership, co-produced with IBLF, is designed to:Exemplify cutting edge partnership thinking and practice; Provide thought leadership for the partnership movement; Consolidate the learning for past and future PCCP participants.
This paper describes the research in partnerships that the Caledon Institute has conducted over the course of its Social Partnerships Project. Four major categories of partnerships are described: public education, social marketing, community investment and social change.
April 2009, Department for Communities and Local Government, United Kingdom This practical guide is focused on the strategic leadership role of local authorities in the UK working through Local Strategic Partnerships (LSPs) and the planning system to shape good places and deliver quality services. The guide highlights local authorities working to bring planning and strategic departments together to work in a more co-ordinated and integrated way.
This is a collection of readings on collaborative working arrangements. It looks at partnerships from different viewpoints ranging from the payoffs and pitfalls for voluntary organisations engaging in collaborative initiatives to the idea of collaboration from the viewpoint of a large social services agency. Caledon Institute of Social Policy, 1998.
An examination of community involvement in the governance of local services, with an emphasis on the role of public officials. The Joseph Rowntree Foundation, United Kingdom, 2008.
Us Now is a film about the power of mass collaboration, government and the internet. The video shows how technology is giving more power to people to make decisions, work together, provide funding or appoint football teams!
The March 2011 issue of Alliance magazine explored the buzzword of the moment ‘collaboration' and explores a range of views on the topic. USA, March 2011.
Community decision-making - NZ resources
This case study describes how the Department of Conservation worked with the Northern Buller community of Hector to protect the Hector's dolphin.
This case study of a small town hit by factory closures demonstrates how a government agency can support community decision-making and build social capital in disadvantaged communities. It is about a community trust in the small Northland town of Moerewa that was set up in response to the dramatic effects of a dairy factory closure and the downsizing of a meatworks.
This case study looks at the Ranui Action Project - an initiative that has brought a small Auckland community together with government agencies, health providers, volunteer groups and the local council to improve community health and wellbeing.
A community developer’s account of efforts by a rural community to confront local issues by developing a long-term social development strategy. The author describes attempts by a group of community representatives to adopt a community-led approach to planning and implementation, the obstacles met, the ultimate outcome of the project, and the “salutary lessons” learned. Tools, methods and models used in the project are included. Terrence M Loomis, New Zealand, 2011.
Heartland Services is an across government initiative to improve access to government services for people in provincial and rural New Zealand.
Inspiring Communities offers insight on community-led development, with a number of practical examples you can learn from. Their principles and framework include:
- Community-led and community driven - priorities determined and ‘visioned’ by those who live, work, care, connect and invest in local community of place – principle of ‘ahi ka’
- Work together – across boundaries and silos deliberately develop the ’strength of ‘loose ties’ among sectors that don’t normally connect – residents, business, iwi, government and NGOs - unleashing creative solutions, unexpected resources and greater understanding of each other’s perspectives
- Asset/strength-based – working with community strengths while understanding, but not dwelling on the problems
- Learning and adapting – understanding that change in one area impacts on other areas, learning how to adapt quickly together
- Demonstrating change and developments – creating and celebrating specific and tangible change – together
- Whole systems change – contributing to policy and legislative change, commercial systems, organisational.
Paths of victory Funded through the NZ Families Commission Innovative Practice Fund, this publication is a case study of Victory Village. Victory Village is a partnership between Victory Primary School and Victory Community Health Centre that led to the establishment of a physical ‘community hub' at the school. The research report explores the innovative practices and outcomes associated with the convergence of health, education, social and community development goals at Victory Village. It looks at the difference Victory Village is making for families and its community, and how it is making this difference.
This provides discussion of theoretical knowledge on community development, with New Zealand examples. It is available on interloan from the Ministry of Social Development Information Centre. R. Munford and W. Walsh-Tapiata, Massey University, Palmerston North, 2001.
This first publication from the Inspiring Communities team includes practical tips, lessons and examples about four aspects of community-led development: Community building, leading in and leaderful communities, working together in place and creating and sustaining momentum.
The report analyses the community planning process used to resolve environmental issues in the town of Whangamata. It also provides guidelines on how to make the planning process work.
Community decision-making - International resources
Citizenscape, a website operated by the Western Australia state government, provides information on citizenship-related organisations, activities, resources and projects. It covers issues relating to citizenship, governance, democracy and human rights advice, and techniques for organising and facilitating meetings, getting funded, working with the media and writing grant applications.
This booklet presents a way of shifting thinking about building community. It features a set of tools designed to foster conversations and restore and reconcile community. The shift is to recognise that creating an alternative future rests on the nature of our conversations and our capacity to relocate where cause resides. A Small Group, USA, 2007.
This Australian site includes useful community development resources.
Published four times a year, the Community Development Journal covers a wide range of topics including community action, local and regional planning, community studies and rural development. Available on interloan from the Department of Internal Affairs Library.Community Development: Community Based Alternatives in an Age of Globalisation An Australian textbook on community development and practice, grounded in ecological, social and political theory. Available on interloan from The Ministry of Social Development Information Centre. J Ife, Pearson Education, French Forest NSW, Australia, 2002.
An Australian textbook on community development and practice, grounded in ecological, social and political theory. Available on interloan from The Ministry of Social Development Information Centre. J Ife, Pearson Education, French Forest NSW, Australia, 2002.
Recognising the importance of involving communities in tackling crime and disorder, an East Midlands city formed nine Community Safety Groups (CSGs) to engage local people with relevant service providers in order to identify and tackle issues in their local area. This report documents the lessons learnt from a pilot community engagement programme undertaken in April 2004, when three consultants worked with the CSGs for one year to enhance the level of community engagement within these groups and support them in identifying and tackling local problems. The report is also intended as a resource for practitioners setting up programmes to enhance local community engagement. D Mistry, Research, Development and Statistics Directorate, United Kingdom, 2007.
This website is designed to assist in planning and sets out clear advice on a whole range of ways people can get involved - using everything from models, to photos, to computer maps. It is designed in such a way that it can be used to help people shape their cities, towns and villages in any part of the world. It covers general principles, methods, scenarios, projects and case studies. The content of this site is taken largely from the Community Planning Handbook published by Earthscan in 1990, and was developed with funding from the UK Department for International Development. United Kingdom.
For many issues, problem-solving capacity must be created and put in motion at the local or "community" level. This site is created by the Art and Science of Community Problem-Solving Project at Harvard University. It provides tools to help you be more strategic about who you work with, which problems you decide to tackle, and how you go about this.
This research looks at governance initiatives in Birmingham that utilise citizens as well as service users and the voluntary and community sectors. It offers valuable insight into the problems disadvantaged communities can experience when participating in this type of governance. It suggests using the two design principles of local knowledge and local representation when designing citizen-centred governance and illustrates these through the use of case studies. M Barnes, C Skelcher, H Beirens, R Dalziel, S Jeffares and L Wilson, Joseph Rowntree Foundation, United Kingdom, 2008.
This Australian textbook discusses principles, issues and dilemmas in community development work and provides case studies. S Kenny. South Melbourne, Australia, 1999.
This book is adapted from an earlier work titled Community Politics. It looks at how to engage communities and the benefits of having engaged communities. It has been written as a starting point for civic organisations that want to look at the state of the public in their communities. D Mathews, Kettering Foundation Press, Ohio, United States of America, 2002.
This guide was developed as a reference tool for participants in a workshop on “Framing Issues for Public Deliberation”. It has a step-by-step guide to the issue framing process with examples. The Kettering Foundation, United States of America, 2002.
This independent review proved "a most helpful document" in guiding how England went about the process of asset transfer to communities - with every recommendation from the report implemented over time. It concluded that organisations can realise tremendous potential by taking on the management and ownership of community assets. The Review looks at the barriers that may be standing in the way of more communities managing and owning assets, and recommends ways to create an environment to encourage more community management and ownership of assets. United Kingdom, May 2007.
This guide provides information on the basic ideas behind the practice of deliberative democracy and has guidelines for developing deliberative democracy. D Matthews and N McAfee, The Kettering Foundation, Ohio, United States of America, 2003
The Neighbourhood Initiatives Foundation has been involved in helping residents to play an active part in the regeneration of their neighbourhoods and the development of their communities. Through the use of interactive, hands-on tools and techniques, such as "Planning for Real®",and by supporting them individually and collectively as they learned new skills and developed their own assets and strengths, NIF has shown that people can make a real difference. This website documents those techniques and has case studies showing the effective ness of the techniques used. Neighbourhood Initiatives Foundation, United Kingdom.
This study looks at how Community Philosophy can open community conversations within and between generations about ‘nuisance’ behaviours and the fear of crime. It considers Community Philosophy in a in an intergenerational and residential environment. It describes Community Philosophy and examines emerging themes as well as discusses issues faced by Community Philosophy practitioners. S Porter and C Seeley, Joseph Rowntree Foundation, United Kingdom, 2008.
This in-depth US case study shares recent research into the power of networks to accelerate systems change. It shows how RE-AMP, a network of 125 nonprofits and funders across eight Midwestern states, has built the capacity of activists, increased funding for its cause, created a number of shared resources, and developed stronger relationships between funders and nonprofits. The Monitor Institute identified six key principles used by RE-AMP that can give other groups interested in building a collective network a roadmap to follow:
- Start by understanding the system you are trying to change
- Involve both funders and non-profits as equals from the outset
- Design for a network, not an organisation—and invest in collective infrastructure
- Cultivate leadership at many levels
- Create multiple opportunities to connect and communicate
- Remain adaptive and emergent—and committed to a long-term vision.